Candidates should be able to maintain a standard filesystem, as well as the extra data associated with a journaling filesystem.
- Verify the integrity of filesystems.
- Monitor free space and inodes.
Repair simple filesystem problems.
du & df
In many cases you want to find out about the free space of a disk or find how much space a directory is using or check how many inodes left.
The inode (index node) is a data structure in a Unix-style file system that describes a file-system object such as a file or a directory. Each inode stores the attributes and disk block locations of the object's data. File-system object attributes may include metadata (times of last change, access, modification), as well as owner and permission data. A directory is a list of inodes with their assigned names. The list includes an entry for itself, its parent, and each of its children. (wikipedia)
The diskfree command is used to find out about the free and used space on file systems.
[email protected]:~$ df -TH Filesystem Type Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/sda2 ext4 23G 15G 7.7G 65% / none tmpfs 4.0K 0 4.0K 0% /sys/fs/cgroup udev devtmpfs 3.9G 4.0K 3.9G 1% /dev tmpfs tmpfs 788M 1.4M 786M 1% /run none tmpfs 5.0M 4.0K 5.0M 1% /run/lock none tmpfs 3.9G 19M 3.9G 1% /run/shm none tmpfs 100M 28K 100M 1% /run/user /dev/mapper/chome ext4 243G 229G 14G 95% /home/jadi /dev/sdb1 vfat 3.7G 7.8M 3.6G 1% /media/jadi/BA82-BECD
-T switch tells
df to show the file system types and `-H` make numbers human readable (in powers of 1000 , for powers of 2, use
On some filesystems (like ext2-4) we have a fixed number of inoes, so you may need to check the number of remaining inodes too. To do so, use the
[email protected]:~$ df -i Filesystem Inodes IUsed IFree IUse% Mounted on /dev/sda2 1531904 458616 1073288 30% / none 1007533 4 1007529 1% /sys/fs/cgroup udev 1003703 542 1003161 1% /dev tmpfs 1007533 644 1006889 1% /run none 1007533 3 1007530 1% /run/lock none 1007533 162 1007371 1% /run/shm none 1007533 33 1007500 1% /run/user /dev/mapper/chome 16171008 269293 15901715 2% /home/jadi /dev/sdb1 0 0 0 - /media/jadi/BA82-BECD
vfat file format has no inodes; there is no owner or access rights on vfat filesystems.
The diskusage command shows the used space of directories and files. The common switches are:
|-h||print sizes in powers of 1024 (e.g., 1023M)|
|-H||print sizes in powers of 1000 (e.g., 1.1G)|
|-c||show the grand total|
|--max-depth 2||Calculate all but show only 2 directories deep|
|-s||Only shows the summary and not all the directories one by one|
[email protected]:~/w/lpic$ du 16 ./101 701456 ./done 701464 ./Logo/chert 704588 ./Logo 12 ./data 12 ./100 9432884 . [email protected]:~/w/lpic$ du -c 16 ./101 701456 ./done 701464 ./Logo/chert 704588 ./Logo 12 ./data 12 ./100 9432884 . 9432884 total [email protected]:~/w/lpic$ du -hs 9.0G .
in many cases when I want to see what uses my serers space, I use something like
$sudo du /home -h --max-depth 1
checking file systems
If anything bad happens for your filesystem (say power suddenly goes down) you will have a corrupted file system. The general command to fix this is
fsck. Technically this command is a front end for many commands:
[email protected]:~$ ls /sbin/*fsck* /sbin/dosfsck /sbin/fsck.ext2 /sbin/fsck.fat /sbin/fsck.vfat /sbin/e2fsck /sbin/fsck.ext3 /sbin/fsck.minix /sbin/fsck /sbin/fsck.ext4 /sbin/fsck.msdos /sbin/fsck.cramfs /sbin/fsck.ext4dev /sbin/fsck.nfs
Some of these are just hardlinks to
A common switch during boot is
-A which tells
fsck to check all file systems in /etc/fstab ordered by passno in that file which is 6th field (File systems with passno of 0, wont be checked during the boot.
[email protected]:~# fsck /dev/sdb fsck from util-linux 2.25.1 e2fsck 1.42.10 (18-May-2014) /dev/sdb is in use. e2fsck: Cannot continue, aborting. [email protected]:~# umount /dev/sdb umount: /dev/sdb: not mounted [email protected]:~# umount /dev/sdb1 [email protected]:~# fsck /dev/sdb fsck from util-linux 2.25.1 e2fsck 1.42.10 (18-May-2014) ext2fs_open2: Bad magic number in super-block fsck.ext2: Superblock invalid, trying backup blocks... fsck.ext2: Bad magic number in super-block while trying to open /dev/sdb The superblock could not be read or does not describe a valid ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystem. If the device is valid and it really contains an ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystem (and not swap or ufs or something else), then the superblock is corrupt, and you might try running e2fsck with an alternate superblock: e2fsck -b 8193 <device> or e2fsck -b 32768 <device>
You can also check filesystems with UUID (find them with
blkid command or with labels) :
[email protected]:~# fsck /dev/sdb fsck from util-linux 2.25.1 e2fsck 1.42.10 (18-May-2014) ext2fs_open2: Bad magic number in super-block fsck.ext2: Superblock invalid, trying backup blocks... fsck.ext2: Bad magic number in super-block while trying to open /dev/sdb The superblock could not be read or does not describe a valid ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystem. If the device is valid and it really contains an ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystem (and not swap or ufs or something else), then the superblock is corrupt, and you might try running e2fsck with an alternate superblock: e2fsck -b 8193 <device> or e2fsck -b 32768 <device> [email protected]:~# blkid /dev/sda1: LABEL="movies" /dev/sdb1: UUID="BA82-BECD" TYPE="vfat" PARTUUID="381add66-01" [email protected]:~# fsck LABEL=movies fsck from util-linux 2.25.1 [email protected]:~# fsck UUID="BA82-BECD" fsck from util-linux 2.25.1 fsck.fat 3.0.26 (2014-03-07) /dev/sdb1: 14 files, 1972/945094 clusters
-N to see what command/test is going to be executed without actually running them:
[email protected]:~# fsck -N UUID="BA82-BECD" fsck from util-linux 2.25.1 [/sbin/fsck.vfat (1) -- /dev/sdb1] fsck.vfat /dev/sdb1
If you want to check a XFS filesystem, you have to use
Some version do have a
-a for automatic fixing all found issues but its not recommended.
e2fsck is used to check the ext2/ext3/ext4 family of file systems. For ext3 and ext4 file systems that use a
journal, if the system has been shutdown uncleanly without any errors,normally, after replaying the committed transactions in the journal, the file system should be marked as clean. Hence, forfile systems that use journaling , e2fsck will normally replay the journal and exit, unless its superblock indicates that further checking is required.
device is a block device (e.g.,
/dev/sdc1) or file containing the file system.
Note that in general it is not safe to run
e2fsck on mounted file systems. The only exception is if the
-n option is specified, and
-L options are not specified. However, even if it is safe to do so, the results printed by
e2fsck are not valid if the file system is mounted . If
e2fsck asks whether or not you should check a file system which is mounted, the only correct answer is ``no''. Only experts who really know what they are doing should consider answering this question in any other way.
e2fsck is run in interactive mode (meaning that none of
-p are specified), the program will ask the user to fix each problem found in the file system. A response of
'y' will fix the error;
'n' will leave the error unfixed; and
'a' will fix the problem and all subsequent problems; pressing Enter will proceed with the default response, which is printed before the question mark. Pressing
mke2fs is used to create an ext2, ext3, or ext4 filesystem, usually in a disk partition. device is the special file corresponding to the device (e.g /dev/hdXX). blocks-count is the number of blocks on the device. If omitted, mke2fs automagically figures the file system size. If called as mkfs.ext3 a journal is created as if the
-j option was specified.
The defaults of the parameters for the newly created filesystem, if not overridden by the options listed below, are controlled by the /etc/mke2fs.conf configuration file. See the mke2fs.conf(5) manual page for more details.
This is a command to tune ext file systems. It can show information and set many options. The
-l option lists the current configs:
[email protected]:~$ sudo tune2fs -l /dev/sda2 tune2fs 1.42.10 (18-May-2014) Filesystem volume name: <none> Last mounted on: / Filesystem UUID: 1651a94e-0b4e-47fb-aca0-f77e05714617 Filesystem magic number: 0xEF53 Filesystem revision #: 1 (dynamic) Filesystem features: has_journal ext_attr resize_inode dir_index filetype needs_recovery extent flex_bg sparse_super large_file huge_file uninit_bg dir_nlink extra_isize Filesystem flags: signed_directory_hash Default mount options: user_xattr acl Filesystem state: clean Errors behavior: Continue Filesystem OS type: Linux Inode count: 1531904 Block count: 6123046 Reserved block count: 306152 Free blocks: 2302702 Free inodes: 1073461 First block: 0 Block size: 4096 Fragment size: 4096 Reserved GDT blocks: 1022 Blocks per group: 32768 Fragments per group: 32768 Inodes per group: 8192 Inode blocks per group: 512 Flex block group size: 16 Filesystem created: Mon Dec 1 10:21:42 2014 Last mount time: Sat Jan 31 17:21:51 2015 Last write time: Sat Jan 31 17:21:51 2015 Mount count: 32 Maximum mount count: -1 Last checked: Mon Dec 1 10:21:42 2014 Check interval: 0 (<none>) Lifetime writes: 103 GB Reserved blocks uid: 0 (user root) Reserved blocks gid: 0 (group root) First inode: 11 Inode size: 256 Required extra isize: 28 Desired extra isize: 28 Journal inode: 8 First orphan inode: 786620 Default directory hash: half_md4 Directory Hash Seed: 16c38a41-e709-4e04-b1c2-8a79d71ea7e8 Journal backup: inode blocks
This is an interactive tool for debug an ext filesystem. It opens the filesystem in read-only mode unless we tell it not to (with
-w option). It can un-delete files and directories..
[email protected]:~# debugfs /dev/sda2 debugfs 1.42.10 (18-May-2014) debugfs: cd /etc/ <-- cd debugfs: pwd <-- show were am I [pwd] INODE: 524289 PATH: /etc [root] INODE: 2 PATH: / debugfs: stat passwd <-- show data on one file Inode: 527187 Type: regular Mode: 0644 Flags: 0x80000 Generation: 1875144872 Version: 0x00000000:00000001 User: 0 Group: 0 Size: 2145 File ACL: 0 Directory ACL: 0 Links: 1 Blockcount: 8 Fragment: Address: 0 Number: 0 Size: 0 ctime: 0x548d4241:a7b196fc -- Sun Dec 14 11:24:41 2014 atime: 0x54cc635b:6acfc148 -- Sat Jan 31 08:38:43 2015 mtime: 0x548d4241:a01076f8 -- Sun Dec 14 11:24:41 2014 crtime: 0x548d4241:9f1c52f8 -- Sun Dec 14 11:24:41 2014 Size of extra inode fields: 28 EXTENTS: (0):2188172 debugfs: ncheck 527187 <-- node check an inode Inode Pathname 527187 /etc/passwd debugfs: q <-- quit
Unix systems use superblocks to save filesystem metadata. Most of the times this block is located at the beginning of the file system and replicated on other locations too. The
mke2fs displays superblock locations
# mke2fs -n /dev/sda7 mke2fs 1.41.9 (22-Aug-2009) Filesystem label= OS type: Linux Block size=4096 (log=2) Fragment size=4096 (log=2) 7159808 inodes, 28637862 blocks 1431893 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user First data block=0 Maximum filesystem blocks=4294967296 874 block groups 32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group 8192 inodes per group Superblock backups stored on blocks: 32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208, 4096000, 7962624, 11239424, 20480000, 23887872
Note: in some distros, xfs tools are not installed by default and you might need to install
This is same as the
tune2fs but for xfs file systems.
xfs_info should be used on mounted file systems
|xfs_growfs||expand file system|
|xfs_admin||change parameters on XFS file systems|
|xfs_repair||repair the problems. Please note that the filesytem under repair should be unmounted|
|xfs_db||checks and debug the filesystem. xfs_db is used to examine an XFS filesystem. Under rare circumstances it can also be used to modify an XFS filesystem, but that task is normally left to xfs_repair or to scripts such as xfs_admin that run xfs_db.|
|xfs_fsr||filesystem reorganizer for XFS. When invoked with no arguments xfs_fsr reorganizes all regular files in all mounted filesystems. xfs_fsr makes many cycles over /etc/mtab each time making a single pass over each XFS filesystem. Each pass goes through and selects files that have the largest number of extents. It attempts to defragment the top 10% of these files on each pass.|
We used the
fsck for showing file system information but it is designed to fix file systems too. If the boot time check find a problems, you will be put into a command line to fix the problems.
On non-journaling file systems (ext2) the fsck will show you many questions about each block and you have to say
y if you want it to fix them. On journaling file systems (ext3&4, xfs, ..) the fsck has much less tasks to perform.
for xfs file systems, we have
An important switch is
-n which causes these commands not to fix anything and just show what was going to be done.
For the LPIC exam, it is good to know about these commands.
|ext||tune2fs||Show or set ext2 and ext3 parameters or even set the journaling options|
|ext||dumpe2fs||Prints the super block and block group descriptor information for an ext2 or ext3 filesystem.|
|ext||debugfs||Is an interactive file system debugger. Use it to examine or change the state of an ext2 or ext3file system.|
|reiserfs||reiserfstune||show and set parameters|
|reiserfs||debugreiserfs||Prints the super block and block group descriptor information for an ext2 or ext3 filesystem.|
|XFS||xfs_growfs||expand file system|
|XFS||xfs_admin||change parameters on XFS file systems|
|XFS||xfs_repair||repair the problems|
|XFS||xfs_db||checks and debugs the filesystem|
|← 104.1 Create partitions and filesystems||104.3 Control mounting and unmounting of filesystems →|