Weight: 3

Candidates should be able to perform package management using RPM, YUM, and Zypper.

Key Knowledge Areas

  • Install, re-install, upgrade and remove packages using RPM, YUM, and Zypper
  • Obtain information on RPM packages such as version, status, dependencies, integrity, and signatures Determine what files a package provides, as well as find which package a specific file comes from Awareness of dnf

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms, and utilities:

Terms and Utilities

  • rpm
  • rpm2cpio
  • /etc/yum.conf
  • /etc/yum.repos.d/
  • yum
  • zypper

Introduction

RedHat Package Manager (RPM) and YellowDog Update Manager (YUM) are used by Fedora, RedHat, RHEL, CentOS, RocksOS, ... to manage packages. The package format is called RPM and can be managed by rpm tools but if you want to use the repositories to install, update, search, ... packages, or even upgrade the whole system, you can use the yum command. To have a deeper understanding of the repositories, please refer to the previous section (102.4); Here I assume that you know the concept.

yum

yum is the package manager used by RedHat-based systems. Its configuration files are located at /etc/yum.conf and /etc/yum.repos.d/. Below is a sample.

# cat /etc/yum.conf
[main]
cachedir=/var/cache/yum/$basearch/$releasever
keepcache=0
debuglevel=2
logfile=/var/log/yum.log
exactarch=1
obsoletes=1
gpgcheck=1
plugins=1
installonly_limit=3

And here is a sample of an actual Repo file on a Fedora system:

# cat /etc/yum.repos.d/fedora.repo
[fedora]
name=Fedora $releasever - $basearch
#baseurl=http://download.example/pub/fedora/linux/releases/$releasever/Everything/$basearch/os/
metalink=https://mirrors.fedoraproject.org/metalink?repo=fedora-$releasever&arch=$basearch
enabled=1
countme=1
metadata_expire=7d
repo_gpgcheck=0
type=rpm
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-fedora-$releasever-$basearch
skip_if_unavailable=False

[fedora-debuginfo]
name=Fedora $releasever - $basearch - Debug
#baseurl=http://download.example/pub/fedora/linux/releases/$releasever/Everything/$basearch/debug/tree/
metalink=https://mirrors.fedoraproject.org/metalink?repo=fedora-debug-$releasever&arch=$basearch
enabled=0
metadata_expire=7d
repo_gpgcheck=0
type=rpm
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-fedora-$releasever-$basearch
skip_if_unavailable=False

[fedora-source]
name=Fedora $releasever - Source
#baseurl=http://download.example/pub/fedora/linux/releases/$releasever/Everything/source/tree/
metalink=https://mirrors.fedoraproject.org/metalink?repo=fedora-source-$releasever&arch=$basearch
enabled=0
metadata_expire=7d
repo_gpgcheck=0
type=rpm
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-fedora-$releasever-$basearch
skip_if_unavailable=False

We use yum like yum [OPTIONS] [COMMAND] [PACKAGE_NAME].

One of the most important options is -y which says yes to the Y/N questions.

And here you can find some of the commands:

Command Description
update Updates the repositories and update the names of packages, or all if nothing is named
install Install a package
reinstall Reinstall a package
list Show a list of packages
info Show information about a package
remove Removes an installed package
search Searches repositories for packages
provides Check which packages provide a specific file
upgrade Upgrades packages and removes the obsolete ones
localinstall Install from a local rpm file
localupdate Updates from a local rpm file
check-update Checks repositories for updates to the installed packages
deplist Shows dependencies of a package
groupinstall Install a group, say "KDE Plasma Workspaces"
history Show history of the usage

This is a sample installation:

# yum install bzr
Last metadata expiration check: 0:00:47 ago on Tue 21 Jun 2022 06:38:00 PM +0430.
Dependencies resolved.
=====================================================================================================================
 Package                                  Architecture       Version                       Repository           Size
=====================================================================================================================
Installing:
 breezy                                   x86_64             3.2.1-3.fc36                  fedora              6.0 M
Installing dependencies:
 libsodium                                x86_64             1.0.18-9.fc36                 fedora              163 k
 python3-bcrypt                           x86_64             3.2.2-1.fc36                  updates              43 k
 python3-certifi                          noarch             2021.10.8-1.fc36              fedora               15 k
 python3-configobj                        noarch             5.0.6-27.fc36                 fedora               63 k
 python3-cryptography                     x86_64             36.0.0-3.fc36                 fedora              1.0 M
 python3-dulwich                          x86_64             0.20.32-1.fc36                fedora              408 k
 python3-httplib2                         noarch             0.20.3-2.fc36                 fedora              122 k
 python3-jeepney                          noarch             0.7.1-2.fc36                  fedora              324 k
 python3-jwt                              noarch             2.4.0-1.fc36                  updates              41 k
 python3-keyring                          noarch             23.6.0-1.fc36                 updates              78 k
 python3-lazr-restfulclient               noarch             0.14.4-2.fc36                 fedora               84 k
 python3-lazr-uri                         noarch             1.0.6-2.fc36                  fedora               33 k
 python3-oauthlib                         noarch             3.0.2-12.fc36                 fedora              169 k
 python3-paramiko                         noarch             2.11.0-1.fc36                 updates             303 k
 python3-patiencediff                     x86_64             0.2.2-4.fc36                  fedora               45 k
 python3-pynacl                           x86_64             1.4.0-5.fc36                  fedora              108 k
 python3-secretstorage                    noarch             3.3.1-4.fc36                  fedora               35 k
 python3-wadllib                          noarch             1.3.6-2.fc36                  fedora               60 k
Installing weak dependencies:
 python3-jwt+crypto                       noarch             2.4.0-1.fc36                  updates             8.9 k
 python3-launchpadlib                     noarch             1.10.15.1-2.fc36              fedora              167 k
 python3-oauthlib+signedtoken             noarch             3.0.2-12.fc36                 fedora              8.5 k
 python3-pyasn1                           noarch             0.4.8-8.fc36                  fedora              134 k

Transaction Summary
=====================================================================================================================
Install  23 Packages

Total download size: 9.4 M
Installed size: 44 M
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Downloading Packages:
(1/23): python3-certifi-2021.10.8-1.fc36.noarch.rpm                                  1.8 kB/s |  15 kB     00:08
(2/23): libsodium-1.0.18-9.fc36.x86_64.rpm                                            15 kB/s | 163 kB     00:10
(3/23): python3-configobj-5.0.6-27.fc36.noarch.rpm                                    10 kB/s |  63 kB     00:06
(4/23): breezy-3.2.1-3.fc36.x86_64.rpm                                               262 kB/s | 6.0 MB     00:23
(5/23): python3-dulwich-0.20.32-1.fc36.x86_64.rpm                                     47 kB/s | 408 kB     00:08
(6/23): python3-cryptography-36.0.0-3.fc36.x86_64.rpm                                 77 kB/s | 1.0 MB     00:13
(7/23): python3-httplib2-0.20.3-2.fc36.noarch.rpm                                    105 kB/s | 122 kB     00:01
(8/23): python3-jeepney-0.7.1-2.fc36.noarch.rpm                                      259 kB/s | 324 kB     00:01
(9/23): python3-launchpadlib-1.10.15.1-2.fc36.noarch.rpm                              74 kB/s | 167 kB     00:02
(10/23): python3-lazr-restfulclient-0.14.4-2.fc36.noarch.rpm                          36 kB/s |  84 kB     00:02
(11/23): python3-lazr-uri-1.0.6-2.fc36.noarch.rpm                                     15 kB/s |  33 kB     00:02
(12/23): python3-oauthlib+signedtoken-3.0.2-12.fc36.noarch.rpm                       4.2 kB/s | 8.5 kB     00:02
(13/23): python3-oauthlib-3.0.2-12.fc36.noarch.rpm                                    58 kB/s | 169 kB     00:02
(14/23): python3-patiencediff-0.2.2-4.fc36.x86_64.rpm                                 15 kB/s |  45 kB     00:02
(15/23): python3-pyasn1-0.4.8-8.fc36.noarch.rpm                                       61 kB/s | 134 kB     00:02
(16/23): python3-pynacl-1.4.0-5.fc36.x86_64.rpm                                       36 kB/s | 108 kB     00:03
(17/23): python3-secretstorage-3.3.1-4.fc36.noarch.rpm                                12 kB/s |  35 kB     00:02
(18/23): python3-wadllib-1.3.6-2.fc36.noarch.rpm                                      24 kB/s |  60 kB     00:02
(19/23): python3-bcrypt-3.2.2-1.fc36.x86_64.rpm                                       16 kB/s |  43 kB     00:02
(20/23): python3-jwt+crypto-2.4.0-1.fc36.noarch.rpm                                  3.2 kB/s | 8.9 kB     00:02
(21/23): python3-jwt-2.4.0-1.fc36.noarch.rpm                                          16 kB/s |  41 kB     00:02
(22/23): python3-keyring-23.6.0-1.fc36.noarch.rpm                                     18 kB/s |  78 kB     00:04
(23/23): python3-paramiko-2.11.0-1.fc36.noarch.rpm                                    38 kB/s | 303 kB     00:08
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                                                                177 kB/s | 9.4 MB     00:54
Running transaction check
Transaction check succeeded.
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded.
Running transaction
  Preparing        :                                                                                             1/1
  Installing       : python3-cryptography-36.0.0-3.fc36.x86_64                                                  1/23
  Installing       : python3-lazr-uri-1.0.6-2.fc36.noarch                                                       2/23
  Installing       : python3-jeepney-0.7.1-2.fc36.noarch                                                        3/23
  Installing       : python3-httplib2-0.20.3-2.fc36.noarch                                                      4/23
  Installing       : python3-secretstorage-3.3.1-4.fc36.noarch                                                  5/23
  Installing       : python3-keyring-23.6.0-1.fc36.noarch                                                       6/23
  Installing       : python3-wadllib-1.3.6-2.fc36.noarch                                                        7/23
  Installing       : python3-jwt-2.4.0-1.fc36.noarch                                                            8/23
  Installing       : python3-jwt+crypto-2.4.0-1.fc36.noarch                                                     9/23
  Installing       : python3-oauthlib-3.0.2-12.fc36.noarch                                                     10/23
  Installing       : python3-oauthlib+signedtoken-3.0.2-12.fc36.noarch                                         11/23
  Installing       : python3-lazr-restfulclient-0.14.4-2.fc36.noarch                                           12/23
  Installing       : python3-launchpadlib-1.10.15.1-2.fc36.noarch                                              13/23
  Installing       : python3-bcrypt-3.2.2-1.fc36.x86_64                                                        14/23
  Installing       : python3-pyasn1-0.4.8-8.fc36.noarch                                                        15/23
  Installing       : python3-patiencediff-0.2.2-4.fc36.x86_64                                                  16/23
  Installing       : python3-configobj-5.0.6-27.fc36.noarch                                                    17/23
  Installing       : python3-certifi-2021.10.8-1.fc36.noarch                                                   18/23
  Installing       : python3-dulwich-0.20.32-1.fc36.x86_64                                                     19/23
  Installing       : libsodium-1.0.18-9.fc36.x86_64                                                            20/23
  Installing       : python3-pynacl-1.4.0-5.fc36.x86_64                                                        21/23
  Installing       : python3-paramiko-2.11.0-1.fc36.noarch                                                     22/23
  Installing       : breezy-3.2.1-3.fc36.x86_64                                                                23/23
  Running scriptlet: breezy-3.2.1-3.fc36.x86_64                                                                23/23
  Verifying        : breezy-3.2.1-3.fc36.x86_64                                                                 1/23
  Verifying        : libsodium-1.0.18-9.fc36.x86_64                                                             2/23
  Verifying        : python3-certifi-2021.10.8-1.fc36.noarch                                                    3/23
  Verifying        : python3-configobj-5.0.6-27.fc36.noarch                                                     4/23
  Verifying        : python3-cryptography-36.0.0-3.fc36.x86_64                                                  5/23
  Verifying        : python3-dulwich-0.20.32-1.fc36.x86_64                                                      6/23
  Verifying        : python3-httplib2-0.20.3-2.fc36.noarch                                                      7/23
  Verifying        : python3-jeepney-0.7.1-2.fc36.noarch                                                        8/23
  Verifying        : python3-launchpadlib-1.10.15.1-2.fc36.noarch                                               9/23
  Verifying        : python3-lazr-restfulclient-0.14.4-2.fc36.noarch                                           10/23
  Verifying        : python3-lazr-uri-1.0.6-2.fc36.noarch                                                      11/23
  Verifying        : python3-oauthlib+signedtoken-3.0.2-12.fc36.noarch                                         12/23
  Verifying        : python3-oauthlib-3.0.2-12.fc36.noarch                                                     13/23
  Verifying        : python3-patiencediff-0.2.2-4.fc36.x86_64                                                  14/23
  Verifying        : python3-pyasn1-0.4.8-8.fc36.noarch                                                        15/23
  Verifying        : python3-pynacl-1.4.0-5.fc36.x86_64                                                        16/23
  Verifying        : python3-secretstorage-3.3.1-4.fc36.noarch                                                 17/23
  Verifying        : python3-wadllib-1.3.6-2.fc36.noarch                                                       18/23
  Verifying        : python3-bcrypt-3.2.2-1.fc36.x86_64                                                        19/23
  Verifying        : python3-jwt+crypto-2.4.0-1.fc36.noarch                                                    20/23
  Verifying        : python3-jwt-2.4.0-1.fc36.noarch                                                           21/23
  Verifying        : python3-keyring-23.6.0-1.fc36.noarch                                                      22/23
  Verifying        : python3-paramiko-2.11.0-1.fc36.noarch                                                     23/23

Installed:
  breezy-3.2.1-3.fc36.x86_64                                 libsodium-1.0.18-9.fc36.x86_64
  python3-bcrypt-3.2.2-1.fc36.x86_64                         python3-certifi-2021.10.8-1.fc36.noarch
  python3-configobj-5.0.6-27.fc36.noarch                     python3-cryptography-36.0.0-3.fc36.x86_64
  python3-dulwich-0.20.32-1.fc36.x86_64                      python3-httplib2-0.20.3-2.fc36.noarch
  python3-jeepney-0.7.1-2.fc36.noarch                        python3-jwt-2.4.0-1.fc36.noarch
  python3-jwt+crypto-2.4.0-1.fc36.noarch                     python3-keyring-23.6.0-1.fc36.noarch
  python3-launchpadlib-1.10.15.1-2.fc36.noarch               python3-lazr-restfulclient-0.14.4-2.fc36.noarch
  python3-lazr-uri-1.0.6-2.fc36.noarch                       python3-oauthlib-3.0.2-12.fc36.noarch
  python3-oauthlib+signedtoken-3.0.2-12.fc36.noarch          python3-paramiko-2.11.0-1.fc36.noarch
  python3-patiencediff-0.2.2-4.fc36.x86_64                   python3-pyasn1-0.4.8-8.fc36.noarch
  python3-pynacl-1.4.0-5.fc36.x86_64                         python3-secretstorage-3.3.1-4.fc36.noarch
  python3-wadllib-1.3.6-2.fc36.noarch

Complete!

You can also use the wildcards:

# yum update 'cal*'

Fun fact: Fedora Linux uses dnf as its package manager and will translate your yum commands to its dnf equivalents.

yumdownloader

This tool will download rpms from repositories without installing them. If you need to download all the dependencies too, use the --resolve switch:

yumdownloader --resolve bzr

RPM

The rpm command can run ACTIONs on individual RPM files. You can use it like rpm ACTION [OPTION] rpm_file.rpm

One of the most used options is -v for verbose output and these are the common ACTIONs:

Short Form Long Form Description
-i --install Installs a package
-e --erase Removes a package
-U --upgrade Installs/Upgrades a package
-q --query Checks if the package is installed
-F --freshen Only update if it's already installed
-V --verify Check the integrity of the installation
-K --checksig Checks the integrity of an rpm package

Please note that each action might have its specific options.

Install and update

In most cases, we use -U which Installs or upgrades a package.

  • RPM does not have a database of automatic package installation, so it can not remove automatically installed dependencies.

If you have an rpm with all of its dependencies, you can install them using rpm -Uvh *.rpm. This will tell rpm not to complain about the dependencies if it is presented in other files. Here the -h creates 50 hash signs to show the progress.

Query

A normal query is like this:

[[email protected] tmp]# rpm -q breezy-3.2.1-3.fc36.x86_64.rpm
breezy-3.2.1-3.fc36.x86_64
[[email protected] tmp]# rpm -q breezy
breezy-3.2.1-3.fc36.x86_64
[[email protected] tmp]# rpm -q emacs
package emacs is not installed

And you can use these options to spice it up:

Short Long Description
-c --configfiles Show the packages configuration files
-i --info Detailed info about a pacakge
-a --all Show all Installed packages
--whatprovides Shows what packages provide this file
-l --list Query the list of files a package installs
-R --requires Show dependencies of a package
-f --file Query package owning file

Verify

You can verify your packages and see if they are installed correctly or not. You can use the -Vv option for verbose output or just use the -V to verify and see only the issues. This is the output after I edited the /bin/tmux manually:

[[email protected] tmp]# rpm -V tmux
S.5....T.    /usr/bin/tmux

And this is part of the man rpm's -V section:

    S Size differs
    M Mode differs (includes permissions and file type)
    5 digest (formerly MD5 sum) differs
    D Device major/minor number mismatch
    L readLink(2) path mismatch
    U User ownership differs
    G Group ownership differs
    T mTime differs
    P caPabilities differ

You can also check the integrity of an rpm package with -K:

# rpm -Kv breezy-3.2.1-3.fc36.x86_64.rpm
breezy-3.2.1-3.fc36.x86_64.rpm:
    Header V4 RSA/SHA256 Signature, key ID 38ab71f4: OK
    Header SHA256 digest: OK
    Header SHA1 digest: OK
    Payload SHA256 digest: OK
    V4 RSA/SHA256 Signature, key ID 38ab71f4: OK
    MD5 digest: OK

The above output shows that this file is valid.

Uninstall

[[email protected] tmp]# rpm -e tmux
error: Failed dependencies:
    tmux is needed by (installed) anaconda-install-env-deps-36.16.5-1.fc36.x86_64
  • rpm removes the package without asking!
  • rpm won't remove a package that is needed by another package

Extract RPM Files

rpm2cpio

The cpio is an archive format (Just like zip or rar or tar). You can use the rpm2cpio command to convert RPM files to cpio and then use the cpio tool to extract them:

[root@fedora tmp]# rpm2cpio breezy-3.2.1-3.fc36.x86_64.rpm > breezy.cpio
[root@fedora tmp]# cpio -idv < breezy.cpio
./usr/bin/brz
./usr/bin/bzr
./usr/bin/bzr-receive-pack
./usr/bin/bzr-upload-pack
./usr/bin/git-remote-brz
./usr/bin/git-remote-bzr
[...]

Zypper

The SUSE Linux and its sibling openSUSE use ZYpp as their package manager engine. You can use YAST or Zypper tools to communicate with it.

These are the main commands used in zypper:

Command Description
help General help
install Installs a package
info Displays information of a package
list-updates Shows available updates
lr Shows repository information
packages List all available packages or packages from a specific repo
what-provides Show the owner of a file
refresh Refreshes the repositories information
remove Removes a package from the system
search Searches for a package
update Checks the repositories and updates the installed packages
verify Checks a package and its dependencies

You can shorten the command when using zypper, so zypper se tmux will search for tmux.

Other tools

YUM and RPM are the main package managers on Fedora, RHEL & Centos but other tools are also available. As mentioned, SUSE uses YaST, and some modern desktops (KDE & Gnome) use PackageKit which is a graphical tool. It is also good to note that the dnf suite is also gaining popularity and is pre-installed on Fedora systems.


← 102.4 Use Debian package management
Chapter List
102.6 Linux as a virtualization guest →

Category

LPIC1

Tags

Contact